8. Maintenance machinery and techniques

This chapter will introduce technologies and practices used in gravel and forest road maintenance. Question: should we present also construction techniques and machinery?

8.1. General

Discussion about differences with gravel roads and forest road maintenance techniques and machinery. Where these techniques can be, and should be, used and what are the benefits and disadvantages of each technique.

8.2. Graders, levelling drags and underblades

8.2.1. Graders

Grader types and their benefits, photos

8.2.2. Levelling drags

Different types of levelling drags and their pros and cons, photos

8.2.3. Underblades

Discussion of truck underblades in the use of gravel road maintenance, photos

8.2.4. Compactors

Different types of compactors in compacting wearing course material after deep grading, photos

8.2.5. Dust binding techniques

Different technologies to spread dust binders on the gravel road wearing course, photos

8.3. Gravelling techniques

Presenting different technologies on how to add new wearing course aggregate on the gravel road or forest road

8.4. Technologies to fix deformations after timber haulage

Presenting different techniques to fill ruts after deformation on forest roads
7.5 Winter maintenance techniques
Short description of snow removal and especially pointing our importance of removal of snow from road shoulders before it melts. Presenting also how to use underblades in compacted snow maintenance.

8.6. Other techniques

-grass cutting and coppice cutting
-clearance management on forest roads
-excavators in drainage maintenance